Biology is called a natural science which is more concerned with the study of living organism in this world. In this branch, we deals with the structures, functions and growth rate of the living organisms. It also deals with the evolution and the distribution of the living organism. Now days, modern biology has a vast range to study life and has many branches.
The word biology was derived from a Greek word Bios which means life and the other word loggia which means study of. So, it means that the study of life. The word biology in Latin language was appeared in 1736 by a scientist Carl Linnaeus and again used in 1766 by Michael Christophe Hanno.
Modern biology is a recent development which is related to and has been studied in ancient time and natural terms of philosophy was studied in China, India and Egypt. Many scientist al-jahiz (781-870) wrote on anatomy. The role of medieval world Islamic is very important in the field of medicine. Biology quickly develops by the invention of microscope. With the help o microscope scientist discovered infusorians and bacteria.
It is an ability or capacity of a system to maintain or regular the environment by different mechanisms. Homeostasis exhibit in all unit or multi cellular organisms.
Energy is basic need of living organism for survival. Many chemical reactions in the body of organism are responsible for structure and also control function of the living organism to extract energy from different substances which act as food and help them form new cells and many processes in the body. The introduction of energy in the ecosystem is known as auto trophy and all living organism obtain their energy with the help of sun such as plants are main living organism that change sun light into chemical energy to prepare food in the form of glucose and change this glucose into ATP which is known as adenosine triphosphate. This ATP bonds break and change to release energy in the different processes of the plants body.
It deals with the physical, mechanical and biochemical processes which takes place in the living organism. This study has been divided into two main categories such as animal and plants physiology, but some rules of physiology are universal, means no problem what organism is studied in physiological study. Physiology tells us how for example immune, endocrine and respiratory systems function. The study of these all systems is shared with some disciplines like immunology.
Main Article: Cell Theory
This theory explain that the cell is the basic unit of life of living organism and all living organism composed of one or more cells. One cell give rise to other cell and by this way all cells arise from other cells by cell division. In multi cellular organism, a single cell gives rise to other cell in fertilized egg. A cell is also a basic unit in many pathological.
A basic concept is that life changes and develops through the processes of evolution and all have a common origin. According to this theory, all living and non-living organism have descended from a common ancestor or gene pool. A common ancestor was appeared about 3.5 billion years ago. According to Darwin theory the species developed through the natural selection and selective breeding processes. Phylogeny means the tidy of relationship of one species with other species is studied in this category. The evolutionary history is organized by biologist by many different methods to understand the relationship between species. Some methods are more important in this regard such as phonetics and cladistics. With the help of evolution wean understand the natural history forms of living organisms in this world.
Gene is known a primary or basic inheritance unit in the living organism. It also corresponds to a region of DNA which influences the function of an n living organism in a specific way in the body of living organism. It is also considered that all organism from animals to bacteria, have the same basic machinery which copies the DNA into protein and cells also transcribe a gene into an RNA type of the gene. The ribosome then translate this RNA into a protein which takes part in the different processes of the living organism body and are used in these processes of the body such as metabolism and some others processes of the body.. A protein is a specific type of amino acid. After this, the translation code from RNA codon to amino acid is the purely same for many living organism but have some different for some special living organism such as the sequence of DNA which codes for insulin in living human also codes for insulin when it is inserted into the body by any other organism such as plants or some other living organism.
In Eukaryotas, the DNA is occurred in the linear form and circular chromosomes in prokaryotic where no nucleus is present in the body. A single chromosome contains DNA and histones and known as organized structural form of DNA. A set of chromosome and hereditary information’s are found in the power house of the cell known as mitochondria and chloroplasts of the body. DNA is coated in the nucleus in the eukaryotic organism and it is present in the mitochondria and chloroplasts in the prokaryotic organism. And have irregular structure in the prokaryotic organism but have regular shape in though Eukaryota organism.
Branches of Biology
Anatomy- the study of function in animal and plants and all other living organism is known as anatomy.
Exobiology-This branch deals with airborne organic particles.
Agriculture- This branch study of producing crops and also raising livestock.
Astrology- This branch study evolution, distribution and futures of life in the world.
Biochemistry- This branch studies all chemical reaction which is taking place in the world.
Bioinformatics- This branch deals with information technology for the study and collection of genome and any other necessary data of biological processes.
Biophysics- the study of biological processes and applying the theories and many methods to prove and used in the physical life is known as biophysics.
Botany- The study of plants and all processes which takes place in the body of plants are studied in this branch.
Zoology- This branch deals with animals and their behavior.
Ecology- the study of environment and interaction of living organism is known as ecology.
Genetics- Genetics deals with genes and heredity.
Biotechnology- this branch deals with genetic modification of living organisms.
Cell biology- this branch study cells and all interactions such as molecular and chemical are studied in this branch of biology.
Writer M Sulaiman