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Wednesday, 1 March 2017

Physics
The branch which studies the matters and their motions is known as physics. The word physics is a Greek word which is physic means the knowledge of nature it means the physics is a natural science in which we study the matters and its movement and also its behavior with time and space as well as force and energy are also common in this regard. In this branch we study the universe behaves basically and physics is known as oldest disciplines.  In the past, physics was a part of biology and chemistry but in 17th century, physics was separated from all others subject and it put in isolate subject in which only matters was studied. Physics has many sections such as quantum chemistry and biophysics are more important. Physics play important contributes through advances in many new research and technologies which arise from much theoretical work such as understanding of electromagnetism.  This understanding led to the development of many new products that have transferred to modern society like computers, television and many new weapons.
History
Article: Explain Astronomy
Astronomy is also known as natural science or oldest science. In the past, ancient Egyptians have knowledge and a basic understanding of the movements of Moon, Stars and Sun. The stars are known as a target of worship and represent gods as well as their explanation remain unscientific due to lack of evidences. Asger Aaboe says that, the origin of astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia.
Article: Explain Classical Physics
By using physics as quantitative and experimental the science become an isolate science and basic development in this regard was the discovery of geocentric model of the solar system was most common. The role of Newton was most common as compared to others physiologist. Because Newton discovers the laws of motion and universal gravitation were important laws of Newton work. Thermodynamics, chemistry and electron genetics are greater discoveries which are resulted from research efforts during the industrial time when energy needs increased. The classical physics remain widely used all objection scale basis and they also provide approximation in these situations. The theories such as quantum theory modify their classical physics at such scales.
Modern physics
Modern physics is connected with the behavior of energy and matter under different conditions on large or small scales such as nuclear and atomic physics only study or small scales at which chemical elements are easily indentified and the physics of such elements is on smaller scales it is connected with the basic units which are known as most important scales.  Modern physics are also known as high energy physics due to extremely high amount of energies is very necessary for producing of many types of different particles in accelerators. In this regard, two most famous theories of modern physics present a various picture of the concept of time, space and matters as compared to classical physics.
Applied physics
This term deals for physics research which is necessary for a particular use and it contains a some classes in an applied physics. The applied physics use physics in various types of scientific research for example, people are working in accelerator physics and might seek to form better particle detector for scientific research in theoretical physics. Physics is mostly used in engineering purposes because in this branch we study matters and natural processes which are used for getting more benefits for forming buildings etc.
Article: Explain Scientific Method
In physics, scientific methods are used to test a theory. With the help of scientific method we can get observation by individually and experimental to prove a theory is true or file.
Theory and experiment
By theory we can develop mathematical model that is proved by experimentally and also predict future results. Theoretical physics is connected with philosophy and also deals with many types of hypothetical issues like high and multiversity dimensions. A theorist gives many ideas and explores these ideas and work on these ideas to making testable prediction of his work.  Theoretical physics is concerned with technology and engineering but experimental physics is involved in many basic researches design and also perform many experiments with new and modern equipments like accelerator and lasers are more common in this regard and many new technologies like MRI and transistors are more used in experimental physics by physiologists.
Scope Of physics
In the branch of physics, we deals matters and modeling the natural world with the help of scientific methods to explains many world secrets that have important for the all living organisms and have many beneficial uses . This branch covers a long range of phenomena, from elements and their particles like electron, neutrons on the largest scales in the industry of physics. Due to this reason, physics is also known as fundamental science and the aim of physics is to develop and describe the different techniques that occur in nature in the form of simple way.
According to ancients chine’s the rocks are attracted towards each other by a force which is not visible by eyes and this force we known as magnetisms force which is responsible of attraction of various types of matters. This force was first studied in 17th century but before 17th century, the Chinese discovered this force without giving this name.
Atomic, optical and molecular physics
This branch of physics means the study of atoms, molecules and optical matters and the interaction on the scales of molecules and atoms on single basis. These three areas are remaining in one branch due to their relationship and the similarity of energy and methods and these areas can treat their subjects with the help of microscope.
With the help of atomic physics we can study electron and their shells and configuration of whole shells but research only focus on cooling, trapping and control of ions and atoms such as hydrogen bomb.
Molecular physics only deals with structures of atoms and ions and their external and internal attraction with light and matter. The optical physics deals with properties of optical fields and their relationship with matters and their all ions which are present in atoms and ions with the help of microscope because we are not able to observe the structure of atoms and ions with eyes. Therefore, with the invention of microscope it was easy to study the atoms and ions.
Condensed Matter Physics
This branch of physics deals with the fields of physics which are studied with the help of microscope and we can study easily properties of such matters. The most famous example arre liquids and solids that arise from the bonding  by way of a special force which is known as  electromagnetic force between atoms and ions.
Condensed matter is a large field of physics and grew out of solid-state physics which is known as famous or main subfields. Philip Anderson was the first persone who used the term condensed physics in 1976.
Astrophysics
It is known as the application of theories and scientific methods of physics to study the stellar evolution and structure because, astrophysics is a subject typically apply many types of useful disciplines of physics such as electromagnetism, mechanics as well as quantum and thermodynamics mechanics are more obvious in this regard. According to Karl jansky in 1931 century, the ratio signals were emitted by bodies explain the sconce of radio astronomy and space exploration is responsible of  expanding of astronomy  because interference with earth’s atmosphere make space based new observation way which is important for x-ray and gamma-ray.
Research
Research is very important factor or subject in the branch of physics.   
Article: Explain the Natural philosophy
This  branch has a common origin in Greece during ancient time(Arabic Time of Period) in 650 BCE when philosophers such as Thales canceled non-naturalistic explanations for natural and proclaimed techniques that every special event had a natural reason and they proposed many new ides which are very important and are verified by main reasons and many observation and also many hypothesis proved  true.aby experimentally and it was  proved right after 200o years  and proposed by Leucippus and his colleagues.
Islamic Role in Physics
Much Islamic scientist work in the field of physics especially in optics and vision. The work of bin sahl, al-kindi is most important in this regard. A famous book The book of optics was written by a Muslim scientist Al-haitham in which he tells about many new theories  such as the study about pinhole camera and he also explain how light enters into the eyes and built a famous camera which is known as obscura in modern time with the help of this book. The seven album of this book explain many positive influenced thinking about disciplines from a basic theory of visual perception in the natural of medieval art in West and in the East about 600 years more period of time. After this, European scholars were also in debt but the work of al-Hay ham was great as compared to others non-Muslims scientist of the whole world in the past period of life. This book has a good impact on Europe because, later many European scholars were able to build the many new same devise by following the rules of this Muslims scientist in the modern times are today, are also getting many information’s from this book.
Electromagnetism
This branch deals with electricity and magnetism. This is also a branch of physics which only deals with electrical phenomenon and their force which are know electromagnetic forces that produce in electrical charged particles. This force make electromagnetic fields like magnetic and electric fields and light field is also important in this regard. The word electromagnetism is derived from two Greek words amber and magnetism which means magnesium type stone.
Thermodynamics
The branch which deals with work, temperature and hat or internal energy is known as thermodynamics. Overall, thermodynamic developed a desire to increase the ability of steam engines which are invented in the past. The starting point was laws of thermodynamics and also four principles which make an axiomatic basis. According to first laws, energy can be easily exchanged between physical systems as work or heat. Are more common in this regard. The interaction in thermodynamics between large objects are studied and also organized in various categories.  We know that a system is formed of many particles, whose motions or movements define its properties and these parties are related to each other with the help of equations of state. The thermodynamics is used to explain how system answered to changes with such types of tools. The history of thermodynamics start with the work of a famous scientist Otto von Guericke in 1650 designed the world’s first vacuum pump and disproves Aristotle supposition which was long-held about the invention of vacuum pump. Late, as team was built. With the help of this steam a piston and a cylinder was created. The concept of laten heat and its capacity, which were important for the invention of thermodynamics were produced by Joseph black who was a professor in the university of Glasgow. The first book was also written on thermodynamics in 1859 by a writer who was William Rankine. This man was a professor in the University of Glasgow. The work of James Clerk Maxwell, Max Planck and J.Willard is most common in the branch of thermodynamics. In 1873-76, A American professor of physicist Willard Gibbs published a paper on the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances in these papers he explains how thermodynamics processes in chemical reactions can be analyzed by studying valium, entropy, pressure and temperature of the thermodynamics system in this manner. In classical thermodynamics, a user use microscope make able properties and it is also used to exchange of work, energy and heat based on the rules of laws of thermodynamics. In 19th century, the first level of understanding of the subjects was developed.  Equilibrium thermodynamics is a systematic way o transformation of energy and matters in system as they reach in equilibrium state. The equilibrium means balance. It is a well defined state.
                                                                                         
                                                                                                   Writer Muhammad Sulaiman

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